The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy

by Jacob Burckhardt

Table of Contents

Part One: The State as a Work of Art


Despots of the Fourteenth Century

Despots of the Fifteenth Century

The Smaller Despotisms

The Greater Dynasties

The Opponents of the Despots

The Republics: Venice and Florence

Foreign Policy

War as a Work of Art

The Papacy


Part Two: The Development of the Individual



Ridicule and Wit

Part Three: The Revival of Antiquity


The Ruins of Rome

The Classics

The Humanists

Universities and Schools

Propagators of Antiquity

Epistolography: Latin Orators

The Treatise, and History in Latin

Antiquity as the Common Source

Neo-Latin Poetry

Fall of the Humanists in the Sixteenth Century

Part Four: The Discovery of the World and of Man

Journeys of the Italians

The Natural Sciences in Italy

Discovery of the Beauty of the Landscape

Discovery of Man

Biography in the Middle Ages

Description of the Outward Man

Description of Human Life

Part Five: Society and Festivals

Equality of Classes

Costumes and Fashions

Language and Society

Social Etiquette

Education of the 'Cortigiano'


Equality of Men and Women

Domestic Life


Part Six: Morality and Religion

Morality and Judgement

Morality and Immorality

Religion in Daily Life

Strength of the Old Faith

Religion and the Spirit of the Renaissance

Influence of Ancient Superstition

General Spirit of Doubt